IBM, Intel pace each other with improved transistors

IBM and Intel over the weekend unveiled similar chip-manufacturing advances.

IBM and Intel accelerated their horse race in semiconductors when each unveiled at the same time on Saturday similar chip-manufacturing advances.

The research from both companies involves a crucial building block -- called high-k material -- to build smaller, more efficient transistors in microprocessors. High-k materials are better insulators than standard silicon dioxide, allowing engineers to keep shrinking transistors without losing efficiency through leaking electricity.

In both announcements, engineers said they planned to use the material to build transistors that switch on and off better, using high-k metal gate technology.

The announcements promise to keep alive Moore's Law, which holds that the number of transistors on a chip doubles every two years. It's good news for users because the more transistors that can be packed on a microprocessor, the faster it runs a PC.

The new materials also mean the manufacturers won't have a problem continuing to etch transistors on chips at microscopic sizes, and more importantly, mass-produce them so they're affordable to PC users. In fact, Intel officials predict this breakthrough alone will ensure Moore's Law thrives "well into the next decade."

The announcements underscore an old industry rivalry, since on its part, IBM worked with Sony, Toshiba and AMD, Intel's main opponent in the microprocessor market.

Both Intel and AMD said they would use the technology to speed the transition from 65nm chip-building architecture to 45nm. Intel is due to start in the second half of the year production of the family: a new laptop dual-core microprocessor, a desktop dual-core and a quad-core, and server dual and quad-core processors. It expects to ramp up to full production in three factories by the first half of 2008.

"That would only be the first five of 15 products that we have in development for 45nm," manager of the 45nm program at Intel, Kaizad Mistry, said. Pressed on when the company would actually begin selling Penryn chips, Intel declined to be more specific.

AMD plans to produce its first 45nm chips in mid-2008, in the wake of the launch of its first 65nm product, the quad-core Barcelona chip due out in mid-2007, according to AMD spokeswoman, Jessica Kaiser.

IBM said it planned to sell systems with chips that use the new transistors by the end of 2008, using its manufacturing line in East Fishkill, New York. Intel insists it has a large lead on all competitors in the progress of shrinking chip features to 45nm.

"We expect followers, but no company is anywhere near where we are with this incredible advancement," Intel spokeswoman, Kari Aakre, said. "We are not only announcing an amazing transistor breakthrough with our high-k, metal gate solution, but we're also already demonstrating it with five early versions of processors from our Penryn family, including server, desktop and laptop systems booting all major operating systems and various applications."

The new processors will mark a big improvement in speed and performance, and require less electricity, than the previous generation of Intel microprocessors. If all goes as planned, they will also give Intel a bit of a head start in mass-producing chips with 45nm transistors. A nanometer is microscopic measurement, just a billionth of a meter. More than 2000 transistors 45nm wide could fit on the period at the end of this sentence.

Intel's manufacturing lead should allow it to bring chips to market before its rivals, but IBM could get a greater return from this technology in the long term because it used the high-k metal gates in a different way, one analyst said.

"It's a wonderfully parallel development of a technology that should lead to faster, more efficient chips in everything from PCs to cell phones and iPods," senior analyst with The Envisioneering Group, Richard Doherty, said.

"Intel has the advantage that they're already in production, but IBM's advance may be even more significant and lead to faster, smaller chips. The IBM breakthrough is to integrate the metal gate so it's embedded in the silicon. Intel put the metal gates on top of a proven silicon architecture."

IBM confirmed that it planned to use high-k, metal gate technology not to produce faster chips in the short term, but to solve long-range problems such as progressing from 45nm production to 32nm and 22nm. The company would use the advance to aid development of large-scale servers and supercomputers, chief technologist for IBM's Systems & Technology Group, Bernie Meyerson, said.

"We don't build Vespa scooters, we build Ferraris. We've been talking about high-k for five years now, and if we wanted to, we could ship it out the door tomorrow. But there's no reason to do that because it doesn't solve any problem for us. We're not addressing a crisis issue that hit us in the head when we didn't see it coming," Meyerson said.

"Ours is a more fundamental implementation; it's a drop-in, or a one-for-one replacement, for SiO2," he said, referring to existing silicon dioxide technology. "I've said for years that gate oxide scaling is ending. The gates are literally five atoms thick. What are you going to do, build one that's two-and-a-half atoms thick?"

Join the PC World newsletter!

Error: Please check your email address.

Our Back to Business guide highlights the best products for you to boost your productivity at home, on the road, at the office, or in the classroom.

Keep up with the latest tech news, reviews and previews by subscribing to the Good Gear Guide newsletter.

Ben Ames and Dan Nystedt

IDG News Service
Show Comments

Most Popular Reviews

Best Deals on PC World

Latest News Articles


GGG Evaluation Team

Kathy Cassidy


First impression on unpacking the Q702 test unit was the solid feel and clean, minimalist styling.

Anthony Grifoni


For work use, Microsoft Word and Excel programs pre-installed on the device are adequate for preparing short documents.

Steph Mundell


The Fujitsu LifeBook UH574 allowed for great mobility without being obnoxiously heavy or clunky. Its twelve hours of battery life did not disappoint.

Andrew Mitsi


The screen was particularly good. It is bright and visible from most angles, however heat is an issue, particularly around the Windows button on the front, and on the back where the battery housing is located.

Simon Harriott


My first impression after unboxing the Q702 is that it is a nice looking unit. Styling is somewhat minimalist but very effective. The tablet part, once detached, has a nice weight, and no buttons or switches are located in awkward or intrusive positions.

Latest Jobs

Don’t have an account? Sign up here

Don't have an account? Sign up now

Forgot password?