Pan handling

I've never met Ken Burns, the respected US documentary filmmaker. Nor have I seen the 13-hour long documentary on the US Civil War that made him famous. But I feel I know him well.

It's all thanks to a simple method Burns used to bring life to archive pictures - his pan-and-zoom technique, where the film camera slowly tracks across a series of still pictures and zooms into a face or point of interest. He found that it was a novel way of adding greater visual appeal to archive photos, and overcame the absence of original footage of the subject matter. Traditionally, this technique uses a large assembly called a rostrum camera, something that few of us have access to.

In fact, it proved so successful that the effect he used now bears his name - and has been borrowed by just about every documentary filmmaker since. But the "Ken Burns effect" isn't just ubiquitous in film: it's also booming in popularity in consumer video and image-editing applications.

I'm not sure what the first Windows app to use the Ken Burns effect was - as well as video-editing applications like Pinnacle Studio, you'll find it in Microsoft's free Windows Media-based Photo Story 3.0 (, see the Windows column on page 94) - but it's the belated arrival of the effect in the latest version of Photoshop Elements that will open the creative floodgates, for better or for worse.

Take it slow

While there's no doubt that applying the magic of Burns to a static slideshow adds a sense of move­ment, the trouble is that breakneck-speed pans and zooms often make the slideshow look as if it was recorded by a lurching drunk.

It's possible to produce respectably understated effects though Elements' pan and zoom feature. With some other programs, such as Apple's iPhoto, setting accurate location and zoom settings for the start and end of the effect relies on guesswork.

Adding an effect to an image in an Elements slideshow is much more satisfying. To set a start point, drag a green bounding box over an area of the photo in the Slideshow Editing window. Drawing a red bounding box sets the focus area for the end of the effect - the smaller the box, the more dramatic the effect - see Figure 1.

What's clever is that the green bounding box remains visible in the Preview window as you overlay the red box, so it's much easier to predict where your pans and zooms will end up. Note too, in the Photo Bin at the bottom of the Slideshow Editing window, these bounding boxes remain visible at all times. You can judge for yourself if you're overusing the effect or repeating it too frequently.

As well as being easier to use, the Ken Burns effect in Elements is more powerful than any I've seen, because you can build up multiple pan and zoom effects. When you click the Add Another Pan & Zoom button, Elements creates a duplicate slide in the Photo Bin and sets the end point of the existing effect as the start point of the next one. This makes it possible to achieve effects such as a slow pan over a landscape, followed by a close-up of a point of interest. If used sparingly - and that's always the caveat with any effect - you would think you were watching a movie. Tools are also provided so that you can record a background narrative (see Figure 2), though you may find you need a better microphone to do this bit properly - see "USB mic with muscle" (on page 2).

On its own, the Ken Burns effect doesn't provide a good enough reason to upgrade Photoshop Elements. For quick slideshow generation, I still prefer either Picasa or ACDSee.

But I do like the way that the Elements slideshow now works almost as a standalone multimedia-authoring tool. From the single Slideshow Editing window, I can adjust images, add MP3 audio tracks, and apply narrative. And then, even better, I can export my completed slideshow so that it's viewable on a widescreen TV - see Figure 3.

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Tom Gorham

PC Advisor (UK)
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