Basic Cascading Style Sheets: Part II

In 'Basic Cascading Style Sheets: Part 1 ', we looked at how to insert CSS into the HEAD tags of your HTML pages for formatting within an individual page. Now we show how to create a separate CSS template to link to multiple pages. This will enable you to make for­matting changes once, to update your entire site. Additionally, we will review formatting styles and the impact of CSS on the links in your pages.

Creating a CSS template


The CSS code shown below will be inserted into a separate file. Once this is done, you can link all of your HTML pages to utilise the formatting styles within. First, open Notepad and insert the following in an empty file :

.subheading
{
COLOR:blue;
FONT-FAMILY:Arial;
FONT-SIZE:13px;
FONT-WEIGHT:bold;
}

Now save the file as a CSS file. Go to the File menu, select Save As, and save the file as template.css. Make sure that you select All Files in the Save As Type drop-down menu, otherwise it may be saved as a .txt (text) file, not as CSS.

Close this document. You have now created a CSS template with one item named '.subheading'.

Notice the code is identical to what was placed in the HEAD tags last month, except we omitted the open and close STYLE commands. Because we used the .css extension, the computer already knows this is the style type used.

Linking a template to HTML pages


In the HEAD portion of your HTML page (where you inserted CSS script last month), insert this line of code:

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="template.css">

This tells the page to look for the template.css file you just made. This line of code must go into the HEAD of every HTML document that you want to reference the CSS settings. This will achieve the same result as inserting the CSS script directly into the HTML page. Consequently, you call your settings in the same way as before.

For example: <font class= "sub­heading"> Subheading text </font>

Figure 1 shows how this all comes together.

Using CSS


CSS settings aren't limited to use within the FONT command only. If you set up a CSS class as 'TD.subheading', then it would ONLY work in the instance of a TD (e.g.: text < /TD>). The absence of anything before the full stop in this example therefore means the style can be applied to all commands, such as P, TD or even BLOCKQUOTE, as long as they are closed off appropriately.

Figure 1 shows the implementation within the paragraph command.

Links and CSS


Links are treated slightly differently than standard class settings. Whenever you have a link, code it exactly the way you would without CSS.

For example: <a href="http://www.pcworld.idg.com.au">click here</a>.

As soon as the computer reads the 'a' (anchor) command, it automatically recognises the three states of links - normal, visited and hover - and treats them according to the CSS style you determine.

To illustrate, if you were to add the following definitions to your CSS template, normal links would be red, Verdana, not underlined and the specified font size. Links over which a mouse hovered, or one that has already been clicked on, would be blue and underlined.

A:link
{
color:red;
font-family:Verdana;
text-decoration:none;
font-size:10.8px;
}
A:visited,A:hover
{
color:blue;
font-family:Verdana;
text-decoration:underline;
FONT-SIZE:10.8px;
}

Using the information covered in this series, you are now ready to successfully implement CSS to affect every page in your Web site.

COMMONLY USED CSS STYLES
Example Description
font-family:arial, helvetica; Of those listed, the first available font will be applied
font-style:italic; Text will display in italics
font-style:bold; Text will display in bold
font-size:10pt; Text will be rendered as 10 point type
color:#00ffff; Text will display in the specified colour
background-color:blue; The element's background colour will be blue text-decoration:underline; Specified text will be underlined text-transform:lowercase; Specified text will be lowercase text-align:center Text will be centre aligned

Join the newsletter!

Or

Sign up to gain exclusive access to email subscriptions, event invitations, competitions, giveaways, and much more.

Membership is free, and your security and privacy remain protected. View our privacy policy before signing up.

Error: Please check your email address.
Keep up with the latest tech news, reviews and previews by subscribing to the Good Gear Guide newsletter.

Heidi Woof

PC World
Show Comments

Brand Post

Most Popular Reviews

Latest Articles

Resources

PCW Evaluation Team

Jack Jeffries

MSI GS75

As the Maserati or BMW of laptops, it would fit perfectly in the hands of a professional needing firepower under the hood, sophistication and class on the surface, and gaming prowess (sports mode if you will) in between.

Taylor Carr

MSI PS63

The MSI PS63 is an amazing laptop and I would definitely consider buying one in the future.

Christopher Low

Brother RJ-4230B

This small mobile printer is exactly what I need for invoicing and other jobs such as sending fellow tradesman details or step-by-step instructions that I can easily print off from my phone or the Web.

Aysha Strobbe

Microsoft Office 365/HP Spectre x360

Microsoft Office continues to make a student’s life that little bit easier by offering reliable, easy to use, time-saving functionality, while continuing to develop new features that further enhance what is already a formidable collection of applications

Michael Hargreaves

Microsoft Office 365/Dell XPS 15 2-in-1

I’d recommend a Dell XPS 15 2-in-1 and the new Windows 10 to anyone who needs to get serious work done (before you kick back on your couch with your favourite Netflix show.)

Maryellen Rose George

Brother PT-P750W

It’s useful for office tasks as well as pragmatic labelling of equipment and storage – just don’t get too excited and label everything in sight!

Featured Content

Product Launch Showcase

Don’t have an account? Sign up here

Don't have an account? Sign up now

Forgot password?